“India is democratic, China is communist,..” we all hear these terms democratic, communist, republic, etc every day in newspapers, magazines or on the internet but many times we are ignorant of its meaning and so today I will try to explain to you in short that what it does actually means. Government type works a lot like the National Religion concept. When you first create your nation and select your government type a random government type will be selected for your people's "desired government." If your nation's government type is not the same as your people's desired government then your nation's population happiness will be negatively affected (-1 happiness). You can view hints about your people's desired government type on the View My Nation page. There are also other "hidden" ways to determine your population's desired government. You can only change your government type once every 3 days.
So let’s start with the basic definition of what does the government actually means:
According to Wikipedia:
“A government is the system to govern a state or community.
The word government derives, ultimately, from the Greek verb κυβερνάω [kubernáo] (meaning to steer with gubernaculum (rudder), the metaphorical sense being attested in Plato's Ship of State).
The Columbia Encyclopedia defines government as "a system of social control under which the right to make laws, and the right to enforce them, is vested in a particular group in society".
While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as their subsidiary organizations.
Finally, the government is also sometimes used in English as a synonym for governance.”
In layman's language Government is the system that rules over a state.
The history of government goes back to 5,000 years, the first small city-states appeared. By the third to second millenniums BC, some of these had developed into larger governed areas: Sumer, Ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, and the Yellow River Civilization.S since then the government system was going on. Actually, the government is necessary for countries to run smoothly. As the years passed the government forms changed from monarchy to dictatorship, from socialism to democratic, all according to the need of the government and its people.
Talking about India, The dominion of India was reborn on January 26, 1950, as a sovereign democratic republic and a union of states. With a universal adult franchise, India’s electorate was the world’s largest, but the traditional feudal roots of most of its illiterate populace were deep, just as their religious caste beliefs were to remain far more powerful than more recent exotic ideas, such as secular statehood. Elections were to be held, however, at least every five years, and the major model of government followed by India’s constitution was that of British parliamentary rule, with a lower House of the People (Lok Sabha), in which an elected prime minister and a cabinet sat, and an upper Council of States (Rajya Sabha). Presidential powers were mostly ceremonial, except for brief periods of “emergency” rule when the nation’s security was believed to be in great danger and normal constitutional procedures and civil rights were feared to be too cumbersome or threatening.
India’s federation divided powers between the central government in New Delhi and a number of state governments (crafted from former British provinces and princely states), each of which also had a nominal governor at its head and an elected chief minister with a cabinet to rule its legislative assembly. One of the Congress Party’s long-standing resolutions had called for the reorganization of British provincial borders into linguistic states, where each of India’s major regional languages would find its administrative reflection, while English and Hindi would remain joint national languages for purposes of the legislation, law, and service examinations. Pressure for such reorganization increased in 1953, after the former British province of Madras was divided into Tamil Nadu (“Land of the Tamils”) and Andhra (from 1956 Andhra Pradesh), where Telugu, another Dravidian tongue, was spoken by the vast majority. (Andhra Pradesh itself was divided in 2014, with the northern, Telugu-speaking portion being split off to become the new state of Telangana. Hyderabad [in Telangana] served as the capital of each state.) Nehru thus appointed the States Reorganisation Commission to redesign India’s internal map, which led to a major redrawing of administrative boundaries, especially in southern India, by the States Reorganization Act, passed in 1956. Four years later, in 1960, the enlarged state of Bombay was divided into Marathi-speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati-speaking Gujarat. Despite those changes, the difficult process of reorganization continued and demanded attention in many regions of the subcontinent, whose truly “continental” character was perhaps best seen in this ongoing linguistic agitation. Among the most difficult problems was a demand by Sikhs that their language, Punjabi, with its sacred Gurmukhi script, be made the official tongue of Punjab, but in that state, many Hindus, fearing that they would find themselves disadvantaged, insisted that as Hindi speakers they too deserve a state of their own, if indeed the Sikhs were to be granted the Punjabi Suba (state) for which so many Sikhs agitated. Nehru, however, refused to agree to a separate Sikh state, as he feared that such a concession to the Sikhs, who were both a religious and a linguistic group, might open the door to further “Pakistan-style” fragmentation.
Types of Government:
Capitalist - A government that invests heavily in business ventures.
Communist - A theoretical system of social organization and a political movement based on common ownership of the means of production. As a political movement, communism seeks to establish a classless society. Choosing communism will lower your environment.
Democracy - A form of government where all the state's decisions are exercised directly or indirectly by a majority of its citizenry through a fair elective process.
Dictatorship - Government by a single person or group of people who are in no way held responsible for the general population. Their discretion in using the powers and resources of the state is unrestrained by any fixed legal or constitutional rules. Choosing a dictatorship will lower your environment.
Federal Government - A government with strong central powers and usually consists of a system of government where there is a division of legislation, executive and judicial power between two main levels of governments.
Monarchy - A form of government in which political power belongs largely to one ruler, generally called a king or queen, who receives his or her position by the claim of divine or inherited rights.
Republic - A form of government whose head of state is not a monarch but instead is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country.
Revolutionary Government - A government that is formed on radical and revolutionary governing ideals. Choosing a revolutionary government will lower your environment.
Totalitarian State - A form of government that exercises massive, direct control over virtually all the activities of its subjects. Choosing totalitarian will lower your environment.
Transitional - A transitional government is a temporary ruling organization usually put into place pending the establishment of a permanent government. Choosing transitional will lower your environment.
Anarchy - A complete lack of government.